MWANAFUNZI: SHAHADA YA UZAMIVU
MFANYAKAZI: MBEYA MEDICAL RESEARCH PROGRAMME(MMRP)
Tuzo hii inatolewa kwa mara ya kwanza mwaka huu na imeanzishwa rasmi na Dakta Mwele Malecela ambaye ni Mkurugenzi Mkuu wa NIMR. Lengo la tuzo hii kuenzi jitihaba za Mama Maria Kamm katika kuhamasisha wanawake kushiriki katika Masomo ya sayansi wanapokuwa mashuleni, jambo ambalo limesaidia kuongeza idadi ya watafiti wa Kisayansi nchini na hata NIMR.
Mama Maria Kamm alikuwa Mwalimu Mkuu maarufu wa Shule ya Sekondari wa Wasichana ya Weruweru ambaye alibobea katika miaka ya 1970, kwa umahiri wake katika kazi na kwa kuzingatia maadili halisi ya kazi ya ualimu.
Mama Kamm alikwa ni miongoni mwa walimu wachache kwa kipindi hicho waliopata Shahada ya Ualimu katika Chuo Kikuu cha Notre Dame.
Tunamuenzi Mama Maria Kamm kwa juhudi zake katika kuzalisha wanawake watafiti na viongozi katika sekta mbalimbali jambo ambalo limechangia kuinua uwezo wa wanawake katika kuongoza na kuleta maendeleo ya jamii.
Mkunde Chachage1, Lilli Podola1,2, Petra Clowes1,2, Dickens Kowour1, Anthony Nsojo1, Inge Kroidl2, Leonard Maboko1, Michael Hoelscher2, Elmar Saathoff2 & Christof Geldmacher2 1Mbeya Medical Research Centre, Mbeya, Tanzania; 2Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University of Munich, Munich, Germany
It has been hypothesized that helminth infections modify HIV susceptibility and disease progression and thus might contribute to the high prevalence of HIV-1 in Africa. Immune system modulation by different helminth infections might contribute to such alterations. The objective was to study immune system modulation of different helminth infections (A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Hookworms, S. haematobium and S. mansoni) in relation to HIV-1 susceptibility and disease progression. Within the region of Mbeya-Tanzania, up to 480 EMINI study participants were recruited and enrolled into the WHIS cohort after diagnosis of helminth species by the Kato Katz method. Helminth infected subjects received antihelmintic treatment at baseline and were followed up at 3 months and 1 year. Immune cell subsets were studied in peripheral blood using polychromatic flow cytometry in fresh, anticoagulated whole blood. HIV- specific CD8 T cell responses were quantified in freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells using an Interferon gamma (IFNg) ELISPOT assay after stimulation with a pool of 16 HIV peptides containing frequently recognized CD8 T cell epitopes. A total of 300 volunteers have been enrolled to date. CD25+ FoxP3+ CD4 T cells (Tregs) were increased in subjects infected with Ascaris and Trichuris (p<0.05). In HIV+ subjects Treg frequencies were highest (mean 4.1%) with no apparent influence of helminth coinfection. Interestingly, a substantial fraction of Tregs (mean 50%) expressed the HIV co-receptor CCR5, indicating that Tregs could be a potential cellular target for HIV infection. Neither concurrent helminth infections nor their treatment had a significant effect on HIV-specific T cell numbers. Antihelminthic treatment had no beneficial effect on CD4 counts. Preliminary results do not support the hypothesis that helminth infections in general are associated with accelerated HIV disease progression, or depressed HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses that secrete IFNg. Regulatory CD4 T cells might be susceptible to HIV infection due to expression of CCR5.