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Thursday, June 6, 2013

Preliminary Thoughts on Rasimu ya Katiba

Dear Friends

See attached, and happy reading and by comparison, pay particular attention to the citizenship area where our draft constitution seems to divorce this matter when it comes to dual nationality because the thinking seems to want to be able to allow different regimes to poker with the subject on regular basis, depending on where the wind of the day blows, hence rely on Act of Parliament of the Day to enact a Law such as The Citizenship Act, 1995...

In my view, our neighbors in Kenya, have covered this quite adequately - see these sections under Kenyan Katiba

CHAPTER THREE—CITIZENSHIP
12—Entitlements of citizens.
13—Retention and acquisition of citizenship.
14—Citizenship by birth.
15—Citizenship by registration.
16—Dual citizenship.
17—Revocation of citizenship.
18—Legislation on citizenship.

and accordingly theirs accords the restrictions as they see appropriate under citizenship and leadership for dual citizenship, within the KATIBA itself.

I think we have some very useful lessons to learn from this and surely, we need to act collectively to make such voice re-emerge!

Allowing this to be outside the constitution, while we maintain DON'T ASK DON'T TELL policy and yet have a few privileged to keep multiple citizenship and showing the face depending on the wind of the day, yet hide behind the notion that this dual nationality part needs so-called "majority support", is a mockery at its highest form!

Our constitution can and should readily accommodate what we want for Tanzania NOT for the next 50 Years as our leaders have been suggesting, but for the rest of the survival of humanity and civilization as we know it on this land we call Tanzania with her people as a nation thereof. 

In the case of the Katiba of the US, though written more than 200 years ago, they are still working on it TODAY and trying to achieve the dream they envisaged and they make progress! Don't go for the mantra that we can't compare ourselves with the US or any other nation! We can certainly compare ourselves with ANY HUMAN BEING when we talk about freedom, growth/development and self-reliance. 

The Law Reform Commission of Tanzania did some good work on the subject of Dual Nationality...

On citizenship the "RASIMU ya KATIBA" shies away from mentioning dual nationality and outlines the following :

SURA YA TANO
URAIA KATIKA JAMHURI YA MUUNGANO

54. Uraia wa Jamhuri ya Muungano
55. Uraia wa kuzaliwa
56. Uraia wa kuandikishwa

I give credit to the three sections above as amongst other rights, they do cover adequately for children of Tanzania born outside the country while their parents are/were holding Tanzanian citizenship.

Recommendation to the Tume ya KATIBA:

In my view, we need a section which stipulates on Dual Nationality and stating along these lines:

57. A citizen by birth does not lose citizenship by acquiring the citizenship of another country.

Dual nationality caveat may include: as long as they were born after 1961. The reasoning here is to ensure that this young nation embraces, facilitates and uses its human resources effectively from the people it nurtured, educated and invested on them as an emerging nation, regardless where these people are now! The good majority of people born post 1961 are very much still heavily emotionally connected to their motherland and some of them are best placed strategically to benefit Tanzania as a young nation. Majority were even pushed to be away mainly for economic reasons - very few or perhaps none on political reasons!

Muundo wa Jamhuri ya Muungano:

Tukumbuke walioanzisha hii hoja ya kuwa na serikali 3, walisema wananchi hawakushirikishwa kuunda Muungo wa Serikali 2. Tume ya Nyalali ilipopita wakati ule, vilevile katika ushiriki wake , idadi iliopendekeza serikali 3 ilikuwa finyu, na ni kweli sio lazima kufuata ya wengi, wakati mwingine ni kufuata busara na uongozi mzuri wenye dira ya kueleweka.

Leo hii, zile kelele za Serikali 3 ziko zaidi upande mmoja wa Muungano kwa yale yale, na pale Bara wanaposema sawa, ni kwa kuzira, sio kwa mtazamo mwingine. Ukichanganya na migogoro ya natural resources, na makanisa kuchomwa moto na watu kuulizana nani achinje, basi ni wazi kuwa kuchukua mfumo mpya tunajua fika tunaishia wapi.

Kwa hali hii, nitoe tahadhari kubwa kabisa kuwa here is where we are opening the PANDORA's BOX !

Hapa (3) Muundo, madaraka na mambo mengine ya kiutendaji yahusuyo Serikali yaTanzania Bara na Serikali ya Mapinduzi ya Zanzibar yataainishwa katika Katiba za Washirika wa Muungano.

Ina maana hizi Serikali za Tanzania Bara na ya Mapinduzi ya Zanzibar, zitakavyoanza mchakato wake wa miundo , madaraka na mambo mengine ya kiutendaji nje ya Muungano, hapa ndio MVUTANO mkubwa kweli utatokea kwenye maswala ya natural resources, utawala wa ndani na wa Shirikisho, and ndio next step KUVUNJIKA kwa Muungano. 

Thinking Aloud: Hapa kuweka Marais 3, ni kukaribisha mivutano ! Je itakubalika kuwa Rais wa Zanzibar awe merely a Governor of State ? Na vilevile Rais wa Tanzania Bara awe merely a Governor of State on Mainland ? Ikubalike pia kuwa ANY inuendos to break the UNION is a treason and severely punishable ?

Je, matatizo ya leo ya serikali 2 yatataluliwaje na yale ya serikali 3 ? Kuna nini Serikali 2 zimeshindwa eti leo 3 itaweza ?

Kwa upande wangu, serikali 2 imeshindwa kuvunja muungano na serikali 3 itafanikiwa kwa hilo kwa urahisi kabisa !

Nikiendelea kusoma hii rasimu, comments zangu as I read .... see below:

We state that:

Bunge
kumshtaki
Rais
84.-(1) Bunge linaweza kupitisha azimio la kumuondoa Rais
madarakani endapo itatolewa hoja ya kumshtaki Rais na ikapitishwa kwa
mujibu wa masharti ya Ibara hii.

and then

Kuundwa kwa Baraza la Mawaziri 92.-(4) Bunge na Mahakama hazitakuwa na uwezo wa kisheria kuchunguza kama ushauri wowote au ushauri wa aina gani ulitolewa na Baraza la Mawaziri kwa Rais.

My question is: How can the BUNGE do its work effectively if it has no legal basis to scrutinize what has been given as advice by the cabinet to the President of the day ? Are we maintaining the Powerful Presidency King in this 21st century with Tanzania having a good number of educated population ? It is too risky !

My suggestion is better to make it stringent such that the BUNGE cannot go down this line without thorough investigation and where the evidence is overwhelmingly convincing, then surely it needs to have the legal basis to scrutinize and the same applies to the Courts. This is the balance of POWER that must be addressed by this new constitution.

Uteuzi wa Mawaziri na Naibu Mawaziri

93.-(1) Kutakuwa na Mawaziri na Naibu Mawaziri wa Serikali ya
Jamhuri ya Muungano watakaoteuliwa na Rais kwa kushauriana na Makamu
wa Rais na baadaye kuthibitishwa na Bunge.

Hapa tuseme kabisa ni Bunge LIPI litathibitisha . Assumption here is Bunge la Muungano, ila these kinds of statements needs to be explicitly stated!

Wajibu wa kulinda Muungano 66.-(1) Bila ya kuathiri wajibu wa kila raia kwa mujibu wa Katiba hii, viongozi wakuu wenye mamlaka ya utendaji katika Jamhuri ya Muungano waliotajwa katika Ibara ndogo ya (3) watawajibika, kila mmoja wao katika kutekeleza madaraka waliyopewa kwa mujibu wa Katiba hii au Katiba za Washirika wa Muungano kuhakikisha kuwa analinda, kuimarisha na kudumisha Muungano.

Hapa pia ni mlango mwingine to break the UNION as it creates ambiguity when the following is added "au Katiba za Washirika wa Muungano kuhakikisha kuwa analinda," 

Other Loop Holes:

Mamlaka ya Washirika wa Muungano
62.-(1) Kila Mshirika wa Muungano atakuwa na mamlaka na haki zote juu ya mambo yote yasiyo ya Muungano, na katika utekelezaji wa mamlaka hayo, kila Mshirika wa Muungano atazingatia misingi ya ushirikiano na mshirika mwingine kwa kuzingatia haki na usawakwa ajili ya ustawi ulio bora
kwa wananchi wa pande zote mbili za Jamhuri ya Muungano.

My comments: [This is good, this is fine]

(2) Bila ya kuathiri mipaka iliyowekwa na Katiba hii, kila Mshirika wa Muungano atakuwa na uwezo na uhuru wa kuanzisha mahusiano au ushirikiano na jumuiya au taasisi yoyote ya kikanda au kimataifa kwa mambo yaliyo chini ya mamlaka yake kwa mujibu wa Katiba ya Mshirika wa
Muungano.

My comments: [This is a serious loop hole ! If all external relation issues are a matter for union, then why allowing this to this extent - note that words used carefully... My suggestion will be any matters that crosses the border of the URT should be UNION matters and into the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, period]

(3) Mshirika wa Muungano anaweza, wakati wa kutekeleza majukumu yake chini ya Ibara ndogo ya (2), kuomba mashirikiano kutoka Serikali ya Jamhuri ya Muungano kwa ajili ya kufanikisha mahusiano na jumuiya au taasisi ya kimataifa au kikanda, na Serikali ya Jamhuri Muungano inaweza kutoa ushirikiano kwa mshirika huyo kwa namna itakavyohitajika.

My comments: [This is good, but it needs to states explicitly that the Union Government may reject such propositions and that will be final. As much as it may support, it may reject as it sees fit and within good reasons]

Mamlaka ya Serikali ya Muungano

59.-(1) Serikali ya Jamhuri ya Muungano itakuwa na mamlaka ya utekelezaji kwa mambo yote yaliyoorodheshwa kuwa Mambo ya Muungano, na wakati inapotekeleza majukumu yake, itazingatia mamlaka yake iliyopewa chini ya Katiba hii.

(2)Utekelezaji wa majukumu ya Serikali utafanywa kwa namna na kwa misingi iliyowekwa na Katiba hii au sheria iliyotungwa na Bunge.

(3) Bila ya kuathiri au kukiuka masharti ya Ibara hii, Serikali ya Jamhuri ya Muungano, kwa makubaliano na masharti maalum baina yake na Serikali ya Zanzibar au Serikali ya Tanzania Bara, inaweza kutekeleza jambo lolote lililo chini ya mamlaka ya Serikali ya Zanzibar au Serikali ya Tanzania Bara kwa mujibu wa masharti ya makubaliano hayo.

[Notice the words "kwa makubaliano na masharti maalum" - this implies it is VERY possible to have a lame duck UNION where there are no makubaliano on matters that may arise with ambiguity or somehow forgotten on the union matters or anything. The Union will have no much power or say over its two subscribers subscribers. I see the notion of delegating powers but in the context of 3 presidents, this is a loophole for more appetite to break the union] 

And what is this: 

Bunge la Jamhuri ya Muungano

(4) Katika kila Jimbo la Uchaguzi kutakuwa na nafasi mbili za ubunge, moja kwa ajili ya mwanamke na moja kwa ajili ya mwanamme.

This clause contradicts with the very spirit of "binadamu wote ni sawa" as stated under "Marufuku
kuhusu ubaguzi" 

24.-(1) Watu wote ni sawa mbele ya sheria na wanayo haki ya kulindwa na kupata haki sawa mbele ya sheria.
(2) Ni marufuku kwa mtu yeyote kubaguliwa na mtu, mamlaka ya nchi au mamlaka yoyote inayotekeleza madaraka yake chini ya sheria yoyote au katika kutekeleza kazi au shughuli yoyote ya mamlaka ya nchi.
(3) Ni marufuku kwa sheria yoyote iliyotungwa na mamlaka yoyote katika Jamhuri ya Muungano kuweka sharti lolote ambalo ni la ubaguzi ama wa dhahiri au kwa taathira yake.

Are we now stating that we will have wabunge kutetea mambo ya wanawake and wengine mambo ya wanaume ? I had thought the country has passed that level and we surely need to base matters on merit and not sex whether it is a position for male or female . This is violation of the principles of equality and positive affirmation gone MAD ! With this mindset, one day we may end up with Female Cabinet on one side and Male on another ! We need to step out of this and emphasize meritocracy and surely this needs not be in the contitution in the sense of sexes!

Dissappointingly, I notice the words UJAMAA completely dropped, but I remain hopeful with more use of the word UMOJA, and USHIRIKIANO.

I would suggest kwenye TUNU za Taifa we add KUJITEGEMEA and also MAENDELEO. This is VERY important. See below:

5. Jamhuri ya Muungano itaenzi na kuzingatia Tunu za Taifanzifuatazo:
(a) utu;
(b) uzalendo;
(c) uadilifu;
(d) umoja;
(e) uwazi;
(f) uwajibikaji; na
(g) lugha ya Taifa.

Taifa tegemezi ni taifa la utumwa. Hapa tuseme kabisa tunataka kuenzi kujitegemea na maendeleo kama moja ya tunu za Taifa na vizazi vipya vielewe hivyo!

Wakati tunaongelea kupeleka maamuzi na madara kwa wananchi mikoani/wilayani/vijijini na wakati huo huo kuweka mwanya serikali zinazojenga muungano ziwe in harmony na KATIBA, hapa tunaweka KATIBA to overrule MILA zote zitakazo kuwa kwa njia moja au nyingine hazikutajwa hapa na uamuzi wa ofisa wa serikali kuwa ndio mwisho ! Hadithi za Umasaini zinakuja kichwani! Kipengele hiki kinaweza kuvunja familia na mila na desturi nzuri tuu na zenye sababu nzuri tuu kwa kutumia hiki kigenzo:

(3) Sheria yoyote, mila, desturi au uamuzi wowote wa chombo cha dola, ofisa wa Serikali au mtu binafsi ni sharti ufuate na kuendana na masharti yaliyomo kwenye Katiba hii na kwamba, sheria, mila, desturi au uamuzi wowote ambao hautawiana au kwenda sambamba na masharti ya Katiba hii utakuwa batili.

My suggestion: Ni bora kuonyesha kuwa kuwe na juhudi na kujenga amani na umoja na makubaliano ambapo mila na KATIBA will be harmonous lakini sio straight overule!

Hapa nasema SAFI KABISA: 
Malengo Makuu
11.-(1) Lengo Kuu la Katiba hii ni kulinda, kuimarisha na kudumisha udugu, amani, umoja na utengamanowa wananchi wa Jamhuri ya Muungano kwa kuzingatia ustawi wa wananchi na kujenga
Taifa huru lenye demokrasia, utawala bora na kujitegemea.

Naona hii draft katiba ndani kuna makundi na inakuwa kama kuyasimika sasa instead of reversing the negative traits being avoided! Kuna mtu/watu, raia, mtoto/watoto, wanawake, wazee, walemavu, umma. Hawa sio BINADAMU kweli ?? Naona tumesahau albino! This trend is OVERKILL and I would suggest that all the bill of rights are addressed as BINADAMU as surely these do apply to all as human beings, and where relevant laws can apply to particular situations as it should!

JUSTICE: Usimamizi wa haki za binadamu

Hapa ningeshauri ufundi utumike kuweza kuaddress anomnally ya JUSTICE DELAYED is JUSTICE DENIED! Pamoja na kuwa hii inaweza kuwa operational, lakini sheria kuu inabidi itoe dira kuhusu speed of decision making and serving justice !

Katika sifa za Mgombea Rais,(h) sera zake au sera za chama chake si za mrengo wa kuligawa
Taifa kwa misingi ya ukabila, udini, rangi au jinsia; - hapa pia iseme wazi kuwa mrengo wa kuligawa taifa kwa misingi ya eneo la Muungano analotoka au njia yoyoye ile.

Hapa (f) anayo angalau shahada ya kwanza ya chuo kikuu kinachotambuliwa kwa mujibu wa sheria za nchi;

Naona kama KATIBA inataka kuamini kuwa degrees ndio uelewa na sio sahihi HATA kidogo na wote tunajua hilo. Ningeshauri hii sifa ya degree itolewe na neno "or equivalent" liwepo au just the wisdom needed which can be from someone who never attended the University ! Swala sio VYETI swala ni Performance ! Let us not get bogged down on this ! Mifano HAI iko kila kona ya DUNIA hii ! This applies to all political roles : Waziri, Naibu Waziri etc

Kwenye (d) Masharti Mahsusi kuhusu Rais - FULLY SUPPORT this and crucial in protecting the URT.

Waziri / Naibu Waziri - kutokuwa Wabunge - this is excellent ! Fully support it and it brings scrutiny and objectivity to the balance !

(4) Kila Waziri atahudhuria vikao vya Kamati za Bunge kila atakapohitajika na kutoa maelezo au ufafanuzi wa suala lolote linalohusu utendaji katika nafasi ya madaraka yake. - Great !

Hapa inaonekana kuna Bunge la Jamhuri ya Muungao  (tuseme Senate?/)

Bunge la Tanzania Bara (House of Representatives ?)
Baraza la Wawakilishi Zanzibar au Bunge la Zanzibar (House of Representatives ?)

Ila tu kuwa mradi hayako ndani ya Muungano, Bunge la Jamhuri halitaangalia kabisa nini haya mawili yanafanya ? Au ndio kazi ya Kamati ya Shirikisho ?? Pandora's box this is ...

Mmmm.... HERE is a CATCH - clever but when the emotions within masses are raised sufficiently... there is no catch ! This is an EXIT door ! Hapa ndio pale tabiri za Baba wa Taifa may come true - Uongozi wetu na Hatima ya Tanzania! Wenye macho tuone kabisaaa...

Utaratibu wa kubadilisha masharti mahusus
112. Bunge halitaweza kufanya mabadiliko ya Katiba kwa lengo la:

(a) kuongeza au kupunguza jambo lolote la Muungano; na
(b) uwepo wa Jamhuri ya Muungano, mpaka kwanza mabadiliko hayo yaungwe mkono na wananchi wa Washirika wa Muungano kwa Kura ya Maoni itakayoendeshwa na kusimamiwa na Tume Huru ya Uchaguzi ya Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania kwa mujibu wa sheria itakayotungwa na Bunge.

My suggestion the mother of all oaths should be to protect and defend the United Republic of Tanzania, period. This oath needs to propagate all the way to the cell level of any administration of any structure taken!

Further review to follow... may follow...

Regards

---- ---- ----
Apollo TEMU

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